什么叫定语?

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定语

定义:定语用来限定、修饰名词或代词的,定语是对名词或代词起修饰、限定作用的词、短语或句子,汉语中常用‘……的’表示。
充当定语的有:形容词、代词、名词、分词、介词短语或副词和从句.

形容词作定语:
The little boy needs a blue pen.(little修饰名词boy;blue修饰名词pen.)/小男孩需要一支兰色的钢笔。
Tom is a handsome boy./Tom是个英俊的男孩。
There is a good boy./有个乖男孩。
数词作定语相当于形容词:Two boys need two pens./两个男孩需要两支钢笔。
The two boys are students./这两个男孩是学生。
There are two boys in the room./房间里有两个男孩。


代词或名词所有格作定语:
His boy needs Tom\'s pen./他的男孩需要Tom的钢笔。
His name is Tom./他的名字是汤姆。
There are two boys of Toms there./那儿有Tom家的两个男孩。


介词短语作定语:
The boy in the classroom needs a pen of yours./教室里的男孩需要你的一支钢笔。
The boy in blue is Tom./穿兰色衣服的孩子是汤姆。
There are two boys of 9,and three of 10./有两个9岁的,三个10岁的男孩。



名词作定语:
The boy needs a ball pen./男孩需要一支圆珠笔。
It is a ball pen./这是一支圆珠笔。
There is only one ball pen in the pencil box./这铅笔盒里只有一支圆珠笔。


副词作定语:
The boy there needs a pen./那儿的男孩需要一支钢笔。
The best boy here is Tom./这里最棒的男孩是Tom。


不定式作定语:
The boy to write this letter needs a pen./写这封信的男孩需要一支钢笔。
The boy to write this letter is Tom./将要写这封信的男孩是汤姆。
There is nothing to do today./今天无事要做。



分词(短语)作定语:
The smiling boy needs a pen bought by his mother./那个微笑的男孩需要一支他妈妈买的钢笔。
The pen bought by her is made in China./她买的笔是中国产的。
There are five boys left./有五个留下的男孩。


定语从句:
The boy who is reading needs the pen which you bought yesterday./那个在阅读的男孩需要你昨天买的钢笔。
The boy you will know is Tom./你将认识的男孩叫汤姆。
There are five boys who will play the game./参加游戏的男孩有五个。
定语的位置一般有两种:用在所修饰词之前的叫前置定语,用在所修饰词之后的叫后置定语。

单词作定语时通常放在它所修饰的词之前,作前置定语。短语和从句作定语时则放在所修饰的词之后,作后置定语。
1)定语前置

在英语里,一般定语前置时的次序为:限定词,形容词、分词、动名词和名词性定语。但当几个形容词同时出现在名词短语之前,我们要注意其次序。其形容词遵循的词序为:限观形龄色国材,指:限定词(一般指数量);外观(美丽等);形状(大小,高矮,肥瘦);年龄;颜色;国籍;材料;用途。如:

a famous American university

an interesting little red French oil painting

a new plastic bucket

purple velvet curtains

an elegant German clock

另外,有些形容词也有特殊的次序:

1) 描述身体特征的形容词先于表示情感和性格特征的形容词

例如:a small lovely girl , a long patient queue , a pale anxious patient ;

2) 表示颜色的形容词放在表示情感和性格特征的形容词之后

例如:a kindly black teacher ,an inquisitive brown dog ;

3) little ,old 和young 有时可以作为名词短语不可分割的一部分,所以可以直接放在名词之前,例如:a lovely little girl 表示性格特征的形容词可以放在old young 之前,也可放在old young 之后,例如:a young ambitious man (强调年龄) ,an ambitious young man(强调雄心勃勃) 。当然,三个以上形容词连用作定语,就显得累赘,因此上面所说的情况一般较少出现.

2)定语后置(1)短语作定语一般后置

It was a conference fruitful of results. 那是一个硕果累累的会议。

He gave me a basket full of eggs. 他给我一个装满鸡蛋的篮子。

English is a language easy to learn but difficult to master. 英语是一门容易学但是难精通的语言。

The boys hardest to teach are all in his class.最难教的男生都在他的班里了。

(2)修饰some,any,no,every等词构成的不定代词的定语都后置

Let’s go somewhere quiet. 咱们去找个安静一点的地方吧。

There is nothing important in today’s paper. 今天报纸上没有什么重要的东西。

Do you have anything more to say? 你还有什么话要说吗?

(3)副词作定语

The people here are very friendly. 这里的人很友好。

They lived in the room above.他们住在楼上的房间。

(4)动词、名词转化而来的以-able,-ible 结尾的形容词作定语

He is a person dependable. 他是一个可以依靠的人

This is the only transportation means available. 这是唯一可行的交通工具。

(5)起强调用的单个分词

Everybody involved should stay here.

The college mentioned.

3. 定语从句

英语里有大量的定语从句,而汉语里却没有定语从句的说法。英语中定语从句中甚至还可能包含定语从句,即多重定语从句。如: A healthy diet includes enough but not too many kinds of foods that provide the body with the nutrients that it needs to function properly. (健康的饮食包括的食物应该充足但又不过多。这些食物提供身体正常活动所必需的营养)

1)英语的复合句中,分句以其主句为基干,通过连接手段,一层一层地展开,就好像一棵树的树干上长出大枝子,大枝子上再长出小枝子。汉语的分句则更多按照时间发生的顺序出现,依次展开。

如: “伟大领袖和导师毛主席领导中国共产党进行了艰苦卓绝的斗争,建立了新中国,人民得到了解放,科学得到了解放。”这句话,译成英语便成了With the founding of new China (which was) born of arduous struggles (which were) waged by the Chinese Communist Party (which was) under the leadership of our great leader and teacher Chairman Mao , our people , and science as well , won emancipation.(王良兰,2003)

2)英语中的非限制性定语从句所表达的信息,在汉语里一般由另一个小句来表达。

例如:She asked for his help which he gladly gave. 她要求他帮忙,他愉快地帮助了她。

再如: It was a century during which the country suffered continuously from wars.

一个世纪过去了,在这期间这个国家不断遭受战乱之苦。
参考文献:百度百科

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